• “Gazes From Syria: Media Witnessing in Times of Crisis”


    Conference Proceedings: AHM Conference 2022, Witnessing, Memory, and Crisis, Amsterdam University Press, 2022. 



  • Burning Images: A History of Effigy Protests


    fresh from the press: Burning Images: A History of Effigy Protests, Valiz, Amsterdam, September 2021.   valiz.nl/publicaties/burning-images
  • Burning United States Presidents: Protest Effigies in Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan

    book chapter

    in Political Portraiture, edited by Luciano Cheles and Alessandro Giacone, London: Routledge, 2020.

  • Burning Effigies with Bakhtinian Laughter


    An article exploring the aspects of the carnivalesque in the burning or hanging of effigies as political protest, published in the European Journal of Humour Research.
  • Reading Images

    PhD Research Material


    2011_08_01_India_Om Parkash Chautala

    The effigy of the senior Indian politician Om Parkash Chautala stands in a small group of protesters in an urban area of Sonepat with three story high houses.

  • Burning Images: Performing Effigies as Political Protest



    My research deals with specific media images that show protesters who hang or burn dolls depicting public figures as signs of political dissent. It is a peculiar age-old and widespread genre of protest that in recent years has been increasingly visible in the media in international conflicts. What upon first glance appears as an iconoclastic gesture turns out to be aimed at producing a row of new images: first the insulting dolls, then the performed image of violent death, and finally the photographic images that are meant to communicate through the media to a variety of audiences.

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